Introduction

             Among all the industrial fibres such as Jute, Sisal, Hemp, Cotton, Abaca, Aloe, Banana and Keora leaf used for making decorative and utility products, the natural cellulosic coir fibre is the hardest one and owing to its unique characteristics of staple length, torsional rigidity, twisting property, tensile strength, resistance to friction, damp proof, echo-friendly and durability, coir has established its position in making various industrial and environmental friendly products. The fibrous husk surrounding the seed of coconut contains coco-fibre, the basic raw material for coir industry. Coir fibre extracted from coconut husk is used commercially for manufacture of a range of products with important end uses. The coir industry is a labour intensive industry. About half a million people are employed in this industry in India and 80% of workers engaged in spinning of coir yarn are rural women. 

            Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal are the other major coconut producing states of India. The area under coconut cultivation and production of coconut in different states of the country indicated in Table-2.1 will show how such states are rich in availability of raw-material i.e. coir fibre. It is seen that Kerala state is the largest producer of coconut in the country, contributing as much as 44.7% of total production whereas coconut production in Orissa is only 8%. 

            The State of Orissa with coast line of about 480 Kms. is having abundant production of coconuts. This activity is generally concentrated in the coastal districts which are evident from Table-2.2. Considering the availability of husk, Orissa has huge potential for development of coir industry and for generating large scale employment for the coir artisans. Prior to 1978, coir industry in Orissa had not come to lime light. Limited coir fibre and coir products were produced by traditional methods in coconut concentrated areas. The husks were mostly used as fuel. Subsequently, on realizing the potentiality for development of coir industry in the state, the State Government took-up various developmental activities through training, research & extension services, financial assistance and awareness programme etc. Similarly Coir Board has also been extending its support for development of coir industry in the state. They had established a Regional Coir Training and Development Centre at Bhubaneswar during the year 1986 to provide skill training and other inputs for promotion of Coir Industry. Now, the centre has been closed in the year 2001 and their Regional 0ffice at Vishakhapatnam is looking after implementation of various schemes in the State.

             It is estimated that 80 to 85 kgs. of fibre on an average is extracted out of 1000 full matured husks. But due to the consumption habits and marketing pattern of coconut, most of the husks are used either as fuel or waste. About 80% of coconut with 60 to 70% coverage of husks is marketed in and outside the state, resulting in a situation of 30% availability of husk, for production of fibre. It is estimated that only 25% coconut husks are available for extraction of fibre in our state. On an average, 1837 MTs of coir fibre are produced in our State and the remaining requirement is met from neighbouring states like Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

            Kerala is the major producer of white coir fibre due to availability of natural retting facilities in the form of brackish water, canal water ways, lagoons and sea water flowing through hinters-land. In absence of such facilities and want of matured green husk our state is producing brown coir fibre by mechanical means.

             The white fibre is generally used for manufacturing of coir yarn, rope, doormat, mattings and carpets for internal and external marketing whereas the brown fibre is used specially for making rubberised coir products, coir brushes, hard boards, geo-textiles and craft items in addition to yarn, rope, mat, matting and carpet production. 

TABLE - 2.1 

Name of the States/

1998  1999

1999  2000

2000  2001

Union Territories

Area (in '000 hectare)

Prodn. (nuts in million)

Prodvty. (nuts per hectare)

Area (in '000 hectare)

Prodn. (nuts in million)

Prodvty. (nuts per hectare)

Area (in '000 hectare)

Prodn. (nuts in million)

Prodvty. (nuts per hectare)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Andhra Pradesh

98.0

698.1

7123

101.7

1051.8

10342

102.5

1092.7

10660

Assam

20.2

149.9

7421

20.2

150.1

7431

20.9

135.9

6502

Goa

24.9

121.0

4859

25.0

121.6

4864

25.0

125.1

5004

Karnataka

310.4

1611.5

5192

320.6

1670.3

5210

338.8

1754.1

5177

Kerala

882.3

5132.0

5817

899.1

5167.0

5747

936.3

5496.0

5870

Maharastra

15.8

220.9

13981

15.1

226.7

15013

16.8

244.4

14548

Orissa

54.5

744.4

13653

29.0

163.3

5634

42.1

163.9

3889

Tamilnadu

285.0

3335.3

11703

304.0

3222.0

10599

323.5

3158.4

9763

Tripura

9.1

7.5

824

9.1

7.5

824

9.1

7.0

769

West Bengal

24.6

318.2

12935

24.2

324.3

13401

24.5

330.5

13490

Andaman & Nicobar

24.7

87.5

3543

24.7

87.5

3543

22.7

87.2

3841

Lakshadeep

2.8

28.0

10000

2.8

28.3

10107

2.8

28.0

10000

Pondichery

2.2

30.9

14045

2.2

31.2

14182

2.2

28.0

12727

 Source : Coconut Development Board

TABLE - 2.2

 

1998 99

1999 2000

 

2000 2001

District

Area(in hectares)

Prodn (nuts in lakh).

Nuts per hectare

Area

(in hectares)

Prodn (nuts in lakh).

Nuts per hectare

Area

(in hectares)

Prodn (nuts in lakh).

Nuts per hectare

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Angul

1059

189.72

17915

1059

40

3777

1344

41

3051

Balasore

4843

646.6

13351

3273

164

5011

4290

165

3846

Bargarh

257

30.84

12000

257

10

3891

257

10

3891

Bhadrak

3024

559.36

18497

1093

109

9973

1980

110

5555

Bolangir

290

34.8

12000

290

11

3793

296

11

3716

Boudh

89

8.9

10000

94

4

4255

151

4

2649

Cuttack

3519

524.4

14901

1407

91

6468

2828

92

3253

Deogarh

80

9.6

12000

80

3

3750

80

3

3750

Dhenkanal

1041

166.56

16000

364

14

3846

707

14

1980

Gajapati

2042

362.52

17753

1102

64

5808

1516

65

4288

Ganjam

7405

1020.2

13777

4725

267

5651

5951

267

4487

Jagatsinghpur

2699

399

14783

289

25

8650

1456

25

1717

Jajpur

2409

357.83

14854

543

43

7919

1703

43

2525

Jharsuguda

116

10.44

9000

116

5

4310

145

5

3448

Kalahandi

176

17.6

10000

176

8

4545

184

8

4348

Kandhamal

292

29.2

10000

302

14

4636

393

14

3562

Kendrapara

2804

415.42

14815

231

12

5195

1238

12

969

Keonjhar

994

140.1

14095

764

29

3796

854

30

3512

Khurda

6962

997.8

14332

1531

96

6270

2475

96

3878

Koraput

268

32.16

12000

280

14

5000

336

14

4167

Malkangiri

196

19.6

10000

196

10

5102

224

10

4464

Mayurbhanj

715

85.8

12000

573

21

3665

736

21

2853

Nawarangpur

137

13.7

10000

184

4

2174

238

4

1681

Nayagarh

4348

56.36

1296

3378

201

5950

4083

201

4923

Nuapada

67

6.03

9000

67

4

5970

68

4

5882

Puri

7356

1153.2

15677

5208

311

5972

6907

311

4503

Rayagada

303

36.36

12000

343

20

5831

457

20

4376

Sambalpur

203

20.3

10000

203

8

3941

260

8

3077

Sonepur

167

20.04

12000

197

8

4061

243

8

3292

Sundargarh

661

79.32

12000

661

23

3479

743

23

3095

TOTAL

54522

7443.76

13653

28986

1633

5634

42143

1639

3889